1300-931: Israelite tribes defeat the Canaanites within the territory of Palestine (the region between Egypt, Syria and Arabia). The kingdom of Israel is established.
931: The kingdom splits into the Northern Kingdom (Israel) and the Southern Kingdom (Judah).
721: Northern Kingdom falls to Assyria.
587: Southern Kingdom falls to Babylon
539: Babylonian Empire falls to the Persian Empire.
331: Persian Empire falls to Alexander the Great. Following his death, the land is subject to rule by Egypt and Syria.
63-61: Romans conquer Jerusalem and Jews live under Roman rule.
476: The Roman Empire falls
638: Muslims from the Arabian Peninsula conquer Jerusalem.
1099: European Crusaders conquer Jerusalem.
1187: Muslims under Saladin reclaim Jerusalem.
1517: Ottoman Empire conquers all of Palestine.
1914: World War I begins. Ottoman Empire enters the war on the side of Germany.
1918: World War I ends, bringing defeat of the Ottoman Empire.
1920: League of Nations divides lands of Ottoman Empire.
1939-1945: The Holocaust takes place during World War II. Jewish migration into Palestine increases.
1947: UN General Assembly passes Resolution 181, which would partition Palestine into a Jewish and Arab state. The Jewish state receives 56% of the land leaving the Arab state 44%.
1948: Israel declares statehood on May 14. Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia declare war on Israel.
1949-1950: At war’s end, Israel holds 78% of the territory of Palestine.
1964: Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is established with the aim of destroying Israel.
1967: Six-Day War. Israel conquers Gaza Strip, West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Sinai, and Golan Heights. UN Security Council passes Resolution 242 calling for Israeli withdrawal from occupied territories.
1973: Egypt and Syria attack Israel, beginning Yom Kippur War. Israel pushes back both armies.
1981: Israel annexes the Golan Heights.
2002: Israel decides to build a Security Fence to reduce suicide bombings from Palestinian terrorists.
2004: International court of Justice (ICJ) rules that the Israeli Security Fence violates international law and must be torn down as it is built on occupied territory. Israel announces that it will ignore the ruling.
2005: Israeli evacuates its Gaza settlements and four West Bank settlements.
2006: The terrorist organization Hamas wins an upset victory in Palestinian Legislative Council elections. A UN study declares the humanitarian situation in the Gaza Strip “intolerable”, with an estimated 80% of the population living in poverty.
2008: Israel invades the Hamas controlled Gaza Strip in response to rocket attacks by Palestinian militant groups.
2011: Palestine Authority moves a resolution in UN for recognition of Palestine statehood.